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Adenocancer Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Sunday, October 3, 2021


 What is Adenocancer?

Adenocancer (adenocarcinoma) is the name given to the types of cancer that appear in the mucus-producing glandular cells of the body. Common types of adenocancer include breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer.

Adenocancer Symptoms

The symptoms of any type of cancer vary depending on the organ affected by the cancer cells. In adenocancer types, there are usually no symptoms or only indistinct symptoms until the cancer progresses. According to the American Cancer Society, the types of cancer that can be included in the adenocancer class can be listed as follows:

Most breast cancers

About 96 percent of colorectal cancers

40% of non-small cell lung cancers

About 95 percent of pancreatic cancers

Almost all prostate cancers

What kind of symptoms are seen in certain types of adenocancer?

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that can be diagnosed with mammography at an early stage, usually before symptoms begin to appear. In some cases, it can be said that breast cancer is manifested by a lump in the breast or armpit during a self-exam. The lump from breast cancer is usually, but not always, firm and painless. Other symptoms of breast cancer include:

Having a mass in the breast

Change in the shape or size of the breast

dimpled or puckered skin on the chest

Bloody nipple discharge from only one breast or sudden onset

Nipple retraction (nipple recession, reduction)

Red or scaly nipple

Colorectal Cancer

This type of cancer in the large intestine or rectum may not show any symptoms if it has not grown large enough to cause problems or if it is detected early during the screening test. Bleeding in colorectal cancers is usually seen as blood in the stool. However, the amount of blood may be too small to be seen. The blood that becomes visible in the stool may be bright red or chestnut in color. Other symptoms of colorectal cancer include:

Abdominal pain or cramps

Diarrhea, constipation, or other changes in bowel movements

Gas, bloating, or a feeling of fullness in the intestines

unexplained weight loss

Lung cancer

The first symptom is a persistent cough, usually with bloody sputum. When symptoms appear, lung cancer has usually reached advanced stages and may have spread to other parts of the body by metastasizing. Symptoms of lung cancer include:

chest pain

difficulty breathing

hoarseness

Anorexia and weight loss

wheezing

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is a type of cancer that usually does not show symptoms until an advanced stage. Abdominal pain and weight loss are among the prominent symptoms of pancreatic cancer. Itching and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) can also be counted among the early symptoms. Other symptoms of pancreatic cancer are:

Loss of appetite

Back pain

Painful burning sensation in the chest

Nausea and vomiting

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer has no distinguishing symptoms. Symptoms that may occur in advanced stages can be listed as follows:

bloody urine

Frequent urination, especially at night

Erectile dysfunction (impotence, erectile dysfunction)

Weak or sudden onset urine stream

How Is Adenocancer Diagnosed?

During the examination, the doctor asks the patient's medical history and a physical examination is performed before the necessary tests. Although the tests performed for the diagnosis of cancer vary depending on the region where the cancerous cells are seen, the three commonly used diagnostic methods are as follows: Biopsy: A tissue sample is taken from the detected abnormal mass and the tissue is examined in a laboratory environment to determine whether this sample is cancerous. In addition, answers are sought to questions such as whether the cancer started at the site where the tissue sample was taken and whether there was metastasis. CT (Computerized Tomography): This scan provides 3D imaging of the area affected by the tumor in the body to evaluate abnormal masses that can be characterized as a sign of adenocancer.MR (Magnetic Resonance): With this technique, detailed images of the organs in the body can be obtained and the presence of masses or abnormal tissues can be detected.

A biopsy is usually done to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Blood tests may not be helpful for diagnosis, but they are a useful method that can be used to monitor the progress of treatment and detect the presence of metastases. In laparoscopy, areas with cancerous cells are examined from the inside through a thin, lighted binocular and camera. Some screening tests and diagnostic methods that help in the diagnosis of cancer in certain organs and parts of the body are as follows:

Breast Cancer

In the diagnosis of breast cancer, apart from the three diagnostic methods listed above, mammography and ultrasound are frequently used. In mammography, an X-ray of the breast is taken to detect cancer. In the ultrasound method, the mass is visualized in more detail with high sound waves.

Colorectal Cancer

Colonoscopy is the most commonly used method in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. In this method, the large intestine is examined from the inside with a fiber optic camera to identify the mass or take a biopsy.

Lung cancer

Many different methods can be used when diagnosing lung cancer. For example, in the bronchoscopy method, cancerous cells are examined through a thin tube with a fiber optic camera extending from the mouth to the lungs to look for/evaluate a suspicious mass or to take a biopsy. In the method called cytological examination, cells taken from sputum or the fluid around the lung are examined under a microscope to detect cancerous cells. Apart from these methods, in the method called mediastinoscopy, the area between the heart and the lung is reached with a special device and the lymphatics are biopsied. Finally, in the thoracentesis (pleural tap) method, while the cancerous cells are being investigated, a thin needle is inserted into the thorax to remove the fluid or air accumulation around the lung.

Pancreatic Cancer

One of the most commonly used methods in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is the method called ERCP. In this method, the pancreas is reached through the mouth with a thin-tipped endoscopy device with a camera, and a colored liquid is applied to this area to provide detailed imaging, and a biopsy can be performed if necessary. The method called paracentesis is the name given to the process of draining the fluid with a thin needle in order to remove the fluid accumulated in the abdomen and to examine the sample cells.

Prostate cancer

When we look at the methods used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, in cases that may be associated with prostate cancer, whether the PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) value in the blood is above the normal level can be determined through the PSA test. This test can be used as a screening test or to monitor how effective treatment is. In the method called transrectal ultrasound or prostate ultrasound, an ultrasound probe is placed in the rectum to view the prostate gland tissue.

How Is Adenocancer Treated?

The treatment process in adenocancers varies depending on the type, size and characteristics of the tumor, whether there is metastasis (spread) or lymph node involvement. Now, smart drugs or immunotherapy are used according to the genetic characteristics of the tumor in the treatment of adenocarcinoma. Cancer that has settled in a certain part of the body is usually treated with surgery or radiotherapy. When cancer metastasizes, chemotherapy needs to be included in the treatment process.

Treatment Options

It can be said that three main treatment methods are used in the treatment of adenocancer:

The tumor and surrounding tissue can be removed from the body by surgical intervention.

Chemotherapy, which uses intravenous drugs that destroy all cancer cells in the body, is a method that is frequently used in cancer treatment and has successful results.

Radiotherapy can also be used to destroy cancerous cells concentrated in a single area.

immunotherapy

Detections from the target

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