What is disease of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ?

Corona (Corona) virus is a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, what scientists call zoonotic, that is, they can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Coronaviruses (Cov) is a family of viruses that cause more serious illnesses from the common cold, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS – CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV). As a result of extensive researches, it has been revealed that SARS-CoV is infected by musk cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted from single humped camels. There are many coronaviruses that have not been transmitted to humans yet, but are detected in animals.

Subtypes of coronaviruses circulating in humans (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HKU1-CoV) are mostly viruses that cause colds. SARS-CoV emerged as a previously unknown virus in 2003 as the first international health emergency of the 21st century, causing hundreds of people to die.

Historical development

About 10 years later, MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) from the Coronavirus (coronavirus) family, which has not been previously shown in humans or animals, was first identified in humans in Saudi Arabia in September 2012; however, it was later revealed that the first cases were actually seen in a hospital in Zarqa, Jordan in April 2012. On December 31, 2019, WHO China Country Office reported pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, Hubei province. On January 7, 2020, the causative agent was identified as the new Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which has not previously been detected in humans. Later, the name of 2019-nCoV disease was accepted as COVID-19.

Coronaviruses are found in the Coronaviridae family. They are classified into four main types. These are: Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta Coronaviruses. They can be found in human, bat, pig, cat, dog, rodent and poultry. (in domestic and wild animals). The disease spectrum caused by Coronavirus in humans can range from simple colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS). It may cause clinical manifestations in various degrees of respiratory, enteric, hepatic, nephrotic and neurological attitudes in humans and animals. The COVID-19 virus is in the beta-coronavirus family, which it contains in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Corona / Covid-19 (Corona)

What are Virus Symptoms and Types?

Viruses associated with this group of viruses can make people with mild to moderate upper respiratory diseases, often similar to the common cold. Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) virus symptoms include runny nose, cough, sore throat, possible headache, and sometimes a few days of fever. For the elderly and very young, with a weakened immune system, the virus can cause much more serious respiratory disease, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. There are very few Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) viruses that can be deadly in humans.

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, also known as the MERS virus, which causes respiratory problems, was first detected in the Middle East in 2012. According to the information given by the Disease Control Centers, three quarters of every 10 patients infected with MERS, whose symptoms are much more severe, died.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, also known as SARS, is another type of Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) virus that can cause more serious symptoms than other types. It was first detected in Guangdong Province in South China. According to the World Health Organization, besides causing respiratory problems, it can cause diarrhea, fatigue, shortness of breath, respiratory distress and kidney failure. Depending on the age of the patient, the mortality rate with SARS ranges from 0-502% of cases, and the elderly are the most risky and vulnerable group of patients.

How Corona / Covid-19 Virus Is Transmitted?

Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) viruses can spread from human contact with animals. According to the World Health Organization, MERS is thought to have spread among camels and SARS among musk cats. The transmission of Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) viruses from person to person is usually possible when a healthy person comes into contact with the body secretions of an infected person.

The virus can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing from the sick people, and through the eyes, mouth, nasal mucosa and handshake from the surfaces that patients touch. Coronaviruses (coronavirus) are generally viruses that are not resistant to the external environment. However, the contagion period and the duration of the external environment of COVID-19 are not clearly known.

What are the Clinical Features of Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) Virus?

Common symptoms of infection are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In more serious cases, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory infection, kidney failure, and even death may occur. However, in line with the available data, it is not possible to comment on the severity of the disease.

What are Corona / Covid-19 Virus Treatment Methods?

There is no special treatment method. Often the symptoms disappear by themselves. After the diagnosis, specialist physicians can apply treatment to relieve symptoms with pain medications and antipyretics. Support for the relief of sore throat and / or cough by balancing the room humidity in the living areas and warm shower. It will also be beneficial to consume plenty of fluids, relax and sleep. If the symptoms begin to progress worse than the standard cold, the specialist must be consulted.

What can be done for Corona / Covid-19 antivirus?

There is no vaccine to protect against the Corona / Covid-19 (Corona) virus family yet.

The trial process for the MERS vaccine is ongoing. Simple measures to be protected will be very useful. The World Health Organization,
Avoiding close contact with infected people,

Paying attention to hand hygiene, washing hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds; In the absence of soap and water, using alcohol-based hand antiseptics; be sure to wash hands, especially after directly contacting sick people or their surroundings,

Avoiding unprotected contact with farm or wild animals,

If you are infected, keeping the distance, closing the mouth and nose with a disposable tissue paper while coughing and sneezing; in the absence of tissue paper, using the elbow inside, washing the hands; avoiding touching your eyes, nose, and mouth,

Disinfection of surfaces touched by infected people,

To cook animal foods such as meat and eggs thoroughly,

He stated that it is important not to enter the crowded places if possible, to close the mouth and nose if it is necessary, and to use a medical mask if possible.

Frequently Asked Questions About Corona / Covid-19 Virus

What is Corona / Covid-19 Virus?

Corona / Covid-19 viruses are a large family of viruses that can cause a wide range of outbreaks, from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

What is Novel Coronavirus / Covid-19?

Novel Coronavirus (CoV) is a new type of Corona / Covid-19 virus that has not been previously identified in humans.

Can Novel Coronavirus be Transmitted from Animals to Humans?

Detailed research shows that SARS-CoV was transmitted to people from musk cats in China in 2002 and MERS-CoV to people from camels in Saudi Arabia. There are also known coronaviruses that are not transmitted to humans. Worldwide research on the virus family is ongoing.

Is there a vaccine for Novel Coronavirus / Covid-19?

There is no vaccine yet for the treatment of Novel Coronavirus / Covid-19.

Can Corona / Covid-19 Viruses be Transmitted from Human to Human?

Some types of viruses can be transmitted from person to person. Usually after close contact with an infected person; The transmission rate can increase considerably at home, at work and / or in areas with large groups of people.

Is There a New Method and / or Medication in Corona / Covid-19 Virus Treatment?

There is no specific treatment for the disease caused by Novel Coronavirus / Covid-19 (Corona). However, most of the symptoms can be treated. The clinical condition of the patient determines the treatment to be applied. Supportive care can also be quite effective for infected people.

What Can I Do To Protect Myself?

The most important thing to prevent getting infected and getting infected is to use hand hygiene, wearing a mask in crowded environments and avoiding close contact with people who show symptoms of respiratory diseases such as coughing and sneezing. Safe food use should also be taken into account, animal foods such as meat and eggs should be cleaned and cooked thoroughly.

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